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航海英语听力与会话第三版问答题第5章
2016-05-16 11:22   审核人:

第五章航行

口述

1. Describe the duties of watch-keeping when underway

a) General rules as to watch-keeping

b) Items to be checked and monitored each watch

c) Special attention for bridge watch keeping

General rules:

OOW should always be on the bridge and keep a proper lookout at all times.

Observing the practices of good seamanship and comply

with the Rules of Road and recommended traffic separation schemes and other regulations.

Regulate ship’s course, speed and supervise the safe navigation of the vessel. Fix the vessel’s position and plot CPA, course and speed of all closing vessels; take actions to avoid collision.

Obey all written and spoken orders of the master and standing orders.

OOW must immediately call the master at any time the vessel appears to be standing into danger and in various other situations.

The following items should be checked and monitored:

Steaming plan; required course, speed and way points; ship’s present position; course to be steered; track to be made good; potential hazards to navigation.

Special attention should be paid to the low visibility procedure; safety of the vessel and pollution prevention.

2. Describe the bridge shift change

a) The conditions which must be satisfied before taking over a bridge watch

b) The procedure for shift change

c) Special attention for shift change

1. Before taking over a bridge watch, the relieving officer should become familiar with the navigational situation. It includes:

The operational condition of all navigational and safety equipment;

Errors of gyro and magnetic compasses;

The movement of vessels in the vicinity;

Conditions and hazards likely to be encountered during the watch;

The possible effects of heel, trim, water density and squat on under-keel clearance.

The relieving officer had personally satisfied himself regarding:

Standing orders and other special instructions relating to the navigation of the vessel; the position, course, speed of the vessel; prevailing and the effect of these factors upon course and speed;

2. The watch officer must relieve the watch on time, reporting to the bridge early enough. The relieving officer must confirm the ship’s present position and review pertinent charts and publications; discuss the navigational situation with the officer being relieved.

3.If at the time the officer of the watch is to be relieved, a maneuver of other action to avoid any hazard is taking place, the relief of the officer should be deferred until such action is completed.

The officer of the watch should not hand over the watch to the relieving officer if he has any reason to believe that the latter is under any disability which would preclude him from carrying out his duties effectively.

3. Describe the differences between navigating in a narrow channel and in a traffic separation scheme

a) The rule s in navigating in a narrow channel

b) The rule s in navigating in a traffic separation scheme

c) The major differences in terms of technical navigation

The rules navigating in a narrow channel:

Keep as near to the outer limit of the channel which lies on her starboard side as safe and practicable.

Overtaking can take place only if vessel to be overtaken has to take action to permit safe passing.

Vessel nearing a bend or an area of narrow channel shall navigate withparticular alertness and caution and sound appropriate signal.

Any vessel should, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid anchoring in a narrow channel.

The rules navigating in a traffic separation scheme:

Vessel using a TSS shall proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow for that lane.

So far as practicable keep clear of a traffic separation line or separation zone.

Normally join or leave a traffic lane at the termination of the lane, but when joining or leaving either side shall do so at as small an angle to the general direction of traffic flow as practicable.

A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes but if obliged to do so shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable at right angles to general direction of traffic flow.

A vessel shall so far as practicable avoid anchoring in a TSS or in areas near its terminations.

The rules of TSS is adopted by IMO and recommended to all vessels and does not relieve any vessel of her obligation under any other rules.

4. Describe advantage of various tools or technologies for proper lookout

The features of radar observation

The advantage of visual lookout

The correct uses of various tools or technologies

Radar is an aid to navigation. It presents only an instantaneous status with limit ability to record historically Past status. It cannot predict anything, especially the maneuvering intent of targets being displayed. There are some limitations of radar since its accuracy is depended on many factors.

Visual lookout has the advantages of real and accuracy.Under good visibility conditions, visual lookout can get the maneuvering intent of other vessel.

Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper lookout by sight, hearing, radar as well as by all available means.

5. Describe the preparations to be done by the deck department prior to arrival

General introduction of the responsibilities of deck department in pre-arrival situation

Preparation to be done prior to arrival

Prior to arrival, the responsibilities of the deck department is get ready all preparations for entering the port, preparation for port entry, customs, quarantine, immigration inspection formality, preparations for loading or unloading.

Preparation to be done:

ETA sent to pilot station at appropriate time with all relevant information.

Available port information, sailing directions and other navigation information, including restrictions on draft, speed, entry time, etc, studied.

Prepare large- scale charts for port’s water.

4. Get all appropriate flag/light signals ready.

5. All navigational equipments, engines, steering gear tested .

6. Manual steering engaged in sufficient time.

7. Ship’s crew at stations for entering port. Mooring port. Mooring machinery tested and mooring lines prepared.

8. Anchors cleared away and ready for use..

回答

1. Why is it important to sound fog signal?

• Vessel sounds fog signal prescribed by the Rules of the Road to give early warning to other vessel of her presence, her general position.

2. When would you sound the general alarm?

• When the vessel suffers explosion, collision, fire or flooding and is in critical condition or immediate danger, the emergency general alarm should be sounded.

3. When should an OOW notify the master immediately for emergency ship-handling or complicated navigation? Please list some

• When OOW is in doubt of his actions to be taken in complicated navigation situations, master should be immediately notified any time for emergency ship-handing. For examples: Failure to make a landfall or navigational sighting at the expected time. Any significant lowing of visibility etc.

4. How does the OOW assess risk of collision generally?

• In assessment of risk of collision, OOW will systemically observe and plot the target concerned to assess the development of the situation whether involving risk of collision.

5. How should the relieving officer behave in case a bridge maneuver already took place has not been over?

• The relieving officer should not take over the watch until such action is over.

6. List the main items to be updated on the pilot card?

• Draft forward and aft ,trim,Propulsions Type, RPM at different speed,Maneuvering speed are the main items to be updated on the pilot card.

7. Besides the collision risk, what else should you monitor on watch in reduced visibility?

• While on watch in reduced visibility, besides the collision risk, I should monitor any other things which may affect ship’s safe sailing at sea. For example weather and sea condition, vessel position and any abnormal circumstance and condition.

8. How should you know the VHF channels to be monitored when leaving port?

• There are many ways for you to get information of local VHF service. Asking directly from agent, finding out from Guide to Port Entry or relevant nautical publications.

9. What would the master expect from the OOW on arriving at the bridge?

• The master expects the OOW reports to him about the ship’s position, course and speed, details of any abnormal circumstance if any.

10. Who should be in attendance when a pilot is on the ladder?

• The officer on watch should be in attendance when a pilot is on the ladder.

11. When should you instruct a lookout to assist you on the bridge?

• When visibility is restricted or traffic is dense I should instruct a lookout to assist me on the bridge.

12. What effect will the general alarm have on all the crew?

• When hearing the general alarm, all crew must go to their muster stations.

13. Why is record keeping a necessary part of watch-keeping?

• Record-keeping includes entries made in deck log, bell book, GMDSS log etc, When there is an accident, the entries in the record are among the most valuable evidences a master can show to support and verify actions taken.

14. Apart from those for navigation safety, what else should you do on the anchor watch?

• The OOW should check anchor position frequently, pay attention to vessel’s surrounding and weather condition, in case of dragging, inform the master and engine room and carry out emergency measures.

15. How would you conveniently check the compass error in pilotage water?

• I will use the compass bearing of fixed conspicuous Landmarks to check the compass error in pilotage water.

16. If a sailing ship is overtaking a power-driven vessel, who has the right of way?

• According ding to COLREG , in this circumstance, the power-driven vessel is the stand on vessel.

17. A power-driven vessel is on a collision course with a fishing trawler, who has the right of way?

• The fishing trawler has the right of way.

18. How many meters are there in a nautical mile?

• There are 1852 meters in a nautical mile.

19. If you travel from Panama to New York, will your latitude increase or decrease?

• The latitude will increase.

20. How many “position lines” are needed to make a position?

• At least two position lines are needed to fix a position

21. Can you define the very important term “under way”?

• According to the COLREG , the word “under way” means that a vessel is not at anchor , or made fast to the shore, or aground.

22. You observe a ship, during daytime , exhibiting three balls on the same halyard. What has happened?

• It is indicate vessel constrained by her draught.

23. What does the abbreviation IALA stand for?

• The abbreviation IALA stand forInternational Association of Lighthouse Authorities

24. Is it safe to pass north of a North mark?

• Yes, it is safe to pass north of a North mark.

25. Is it safe to pass north of a South mark?

• No, it is not safe to pass north of a North mark.

26. Does “variation” change due to ship’s position?

• Yes, it changes with the change of ship’s positions.

27. Does “deviation” change due to ship’s position?

• Yes, it changes with the change of ship’s positions.

28. When correcting charts why must you use symbols and abbreviation from charts 5011?

• For admiralty series charts , using Symbols and Abbreviations from charts 5011 to correct Admiralty Paper Charts the admiralty way and to ensure uniformity of updates.

29. You have purchased a new chart. Is it right ready for use?

• Yes, if you buy the chart from admiralty chart distributor or agent listed on the catalog.

30. What publication do you need to correct charts properly?

• Admiralty notice to mariners weekly edition.

31. What course in degrees corresponds to south-east?

• It corresponds to Course 135°

32. What is the angle between magnetic and true meridian called?

• It is called variation

33. Where can you always find information about the magnetic variation?

• We can find information about the magnetic variation on nautical chart.

34. When a ship picks up speed, will draught increase or decrease?

• Draught will always be decreased, when the ship sails in sallow water, but it will depend on many factors when the ship sails in deep water.

35. A ship ahead of you has hoisted the signal flag “O”, what has happened?

• The signal flag indicates “man overboard”

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