1. Describe the responsibilities as a watch officer while the ship is at anchor。
a) Regular operations for anchor watch
b) Emergency handling in case of dragging
The officer on duty of anchor watch:
a. Must take anchor bearings as soon as the anchored ship has settled into a riding position. Bearings of the ship’s position at anchor should be plotted on the chart and recorded in the deck log. To check anchor bearings frequently in order to detect dragging of the anchor. In case of dragging of anchor, the officer on duty must take emergency action to avoid damage and inform the master immediately.
b. Must keep a close anchor watch and proper lookout, particularly at the period of strong current. Monitor weather conditions to have warning of conditions which may affect the safety of the vessel in ample time.
c. Ensure that the appropriate lights and shapes are exhibited.
d. Monitor on appropriate VHF channel for message from port authority or any other message relevant to the safety of the vessel.
e. Monitor vessel traffic to have warning of risk of collision in ample time.
2. Describe the proper way of using VHF
a) How to operate VHF set proper
b) General rules of using VHF
c) Rules of using ch.16
1. Switch on the power, select channel and turn up the volume. Then you can receive message on that channel. If you want to transmit, press the transmitting button and speak.
2. Keep listening watch on ch16 at all times while the bridge is manned.
3. Avoid non-essential transmissions
4. The lowest transmitter power should be used first.
5. Distress calls or messages have absolute priority over all other communication. When hearing them all other transmissions should cease and a listening watch should be kept.
6. VHF channel 16 is only to be used for calling in cases of distress, safety and urgency.
3. Describe the procedure before arrived at a port
a) The preparations from the bridge
b) the preparations from engine room
c) The preparations from the deck
1. ETA sent to pilot station at appropriate time with all relevant information. Look up and study the sailing directions and relevant nautical publications to get as much as information for port entry
2. All appropriate flag/light signals, Latest weather report, Large–scale chart for port’s pilotage water should be prepared
3. VHF channels for various services noted. Radio check for pilot/tug/berthing instructions.
4. Pilot ladder/hoist on correct side. Master/pilot information exchange form prepared.
5. All navigational equipment tested. Manual steering engaged in sufficient time.
Engine room preparation:
Engines tested for satisfactory operation ahead and astern. Steering gear tested in primary and secondary systems. supply Deck power and keep Adequate pressure on fire main
Ship’s crew at stations for entering port. Mooring machinery tested, mooring lines etc. prepared. Get anchors ready for use.
4. Describe the procedures before leaving a port
a) The preparations from the bridge
b) The preparations from the engine room
c) The preparations from the deck
The preparations from the bridge
- Check ship’ whistle, signaling light, ship’s lights, or day signals, steering gear system VHF, Radar, echo sounder, gyro compass, magnetic compass, compass repeaters, telegraph, course recorder, etc.
- Give notice to engine room, duty officers, and duty crew.
The preparations from engine room
Engines tested for satisfactory operation ahead and astern. Steering gear tested in primary and secondary systems. Check generators and boilers. Ensure to shut discharge valve.
The preparations from deck
Switch on deck lights if at night. Remove rat guards. Prepare to make fast tug line if necessary.
5. Describe the procedure of pilotage
a) The general procedures for pilot request.
b) The preparations for receiving the pilot
c) The general rules for pilotage.
1. Vessel requiring pilots: inform the pilot station ship’s particulars: ship’s draft forward, aft and air draft. Ship’s LOA, cargo condition, etc.
2. Preparations: Get the pilot ladder ready. Have a heaving line ready at the pilot ladder and put lights on the pilot ladder. Have a heaving line and life buoy ready at the pilot ladder
3. After the pilot arrives on board:
The master should supply the pilot with relevant ship handling information ( draft, trim, turning circles, peculiar maneuvering characteristics and other data)
The pilotage is mandatory for some ports. Vessel entering or leaving these ports must employ a pilot. For some ports, which the pilotage is not mandatory, the captain may enter or leave these ports by themselves.
1.Can you list at least three mooring lines？
• Yes, I can. They are spring line, head line and stern line.
2. What should be prepared before the pilot on board?
• Pilot transfer preparations such as Rigging the pilot ladder as required, having a heaving line and life buoy ready and putting light on at the pilot ladder if necessary. Bridge preparation such as pilot card up dating and information to be exchanged.
3. What is the maximum speed through the water that your ship can anchor without risking breaking the cable?
• This varies with the size and the type of the vessel and of the anchor chain, but normally for a VLCC or a super container ship a speed of 1 knot should not be exceeded.
4.What flag should be hoisted when a vessel requires a pilot?
• Flag “G” should be hoisted. when a vessel requires a pilot.
5. How can a ship get in touch with a port before her arrival?
• VHF can be used to get in touch with the port before her arrival
6. What ship’s particulars will pilot station usually ask for?
• Ship’s name and call sign, LOA, last port of call, next port of call and port of destination, fore and aft draft and air draft etc.
7. What should be reported to the pilot station?
• The LOA, drafts and air draft of the vessel, the intention of calling at the port, cargo condition, the ship’s trim condition and any ship’s deficiencies information should be reported to the pilot station.
8. What should be confirmed from the pilot station?
• The following should be confirmed: Is it clear to enter the fairway? Is there sufficient depth of water for the ship’s entering? When and where should I meet the pilot? On which side should the pilot ladder be rigged?
9. When the vessel enters the VTS area, what is requested to report?
• When enters the VTS area, the following are usually requested to be reported: the ship’s name, call sign and flag state, ship’s position, speed and course; last port of call and port destination, cargo condition and any deficiencies or restrictions.
10. What does ‘foul anchor’ mean?
• Foul anchor means anchor has its own cable twisted around it or has fouled an obstruction.
11. If you are ordered :“Stand by both engines!” How should you reply and report?
• I should reply stand by both engines and report both engines stand by.
12. Can you list three famous canals in the world?
• Yes, I can. They are Panama canal, Suez canal,
13. When you request the receiver to remain on channel 16 in VHF communication, what do you say?
• I should say “Stand by on channel 16.”
14. How do you rectify the mistake in marine VHF communication?
• I should say “mistake” followed by the word “correction” by doing that correct information be transmitted afterwards.
15. How do you emphasize the important part of a message in maritime VHF communication?
• I should say “repeat” followed by the corresponding important part of the messages.
16. What does ‘abandon vessel’ mean?
• Abandon vessel means to evacuate the crew members and passengers from the vessel in distress.
17. What does the abbreviation ETD stand for?
• ETD means the estimated time for departure.
18. What does dredging of an anchor mean?
• Dredging of anchor means the move of an anchor over the sea bottom to control the movement of the vessel
19. What does underway mean?
• In accordance with the definition of COLREG, vessels which are not at anchor or aground or does not make fast to the shore are all under way.
20. What does dragging of an anchor mean?
• Dragging of an anchor means the move of an anchor over the sea bottom involuntarily because it is no longer preventing the movement of the vessel
21. What is the difference between a “radar beacon” and a “radar reflector
• Radar beacon actively transmits special radio signal (Morse Code) for identification and radar reflector equipped on wooden hull ship is used to assist reflecting radar beams passively
22. How many objects do you need to get a position using “horizontal sextant angles?
• At least three objects which are not passing through the same circle with the vessel are needed to get a horizontal sextant angles position.
23. Why is a magnetic compass kept on board when a gyro compass is more accurate ?
•A magnetic compass is kept on board , not only because its relatively simplicity in construction and its reliability in service ,but also because the need to meet the requirement of SOLAS convention.
24. What do you report when the anchor has been heaved out of the ground and is clear of it?
• We will report anchor is aweigh or anchor is clear of the bottom for the exact time point.
25. When preparing for anchoring what must you do before releasing the bow stoppers?
• Many preparations should be done before releasing the bow stoppers for the ground tackle for sea and for the awareness of oceanographic, meteorological condition, sea rooms in the immediate vicinity of the vessel.
26. Would you let go an anchor from the hawse pipe if the depth was 75 meters?
• No, when the water depth is over 25 meters, deep water anchoring procedures should be observed. i.e., anchor should be lowered by windlass from 0 to 5 meters to bottom before letting go.
27. Why must you consider ship’s speed and sea depth when you release the bow stopper?
• If the anchor is accidentally dropped after releasing the bow stopper, the risk of breaking of the anchor chain with high ship’s speed may exist and lost of the anchor with deep water depth may sometimes occurs.
28. What must always be brought and placed close to the pilot ladder well before the pilot’s embarkation?
• Life buoy, Life line, heaving line and if necessary lighting equipment must always be brought and placed close to the pilot ladder before the pilot’s embarkation.
29. Why is it dangerous to anchor in ice?
• Because it may cause the vessel and anchor chain to be fasted in the ice.
30. What flag is hoisted when the pilot has arrived on board?
• Flag H should be hoisted when the pilot has arrived on board.